The theory of Massera and Schaeffer relating the existence of unique almost periodic solutions of an inhomogeneous linear equation to an exponential dichotomy for the homogeneous equation was completely extended to discretizations by a strongly stable difference scheme. In addition it is shown that the almost periodic sequence solution will converge to the differential equation solution. The preceding theory was applied to a class of exponentially stable partial differential equations to which...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS, PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, PROBLEM...

We derive a deterministic particle method for the solution of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations in one spatial dimension. This deterministic method is an analog of a Monte Carlo method for the solution of these problems that has been previously investigated by the author. The deterministic method leads to the consideration of a system of ordinary differential equations for the positions of suitably defined particles. We then consider the time explicit and implicit methods for this system...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY LAYER EQUATIONS, MONTE CARLO METHOD, NONLINEAR...

This paper describes a method to solve a system of N linear equations in N steps. A quadratic form is developed involving the sum of the squares of the residuals of the equations. Equating the quadratic form to a constant yields a surface which is an ellipsoid. For different constants, a family of similar ellipsoids can be generated. Starting at an arbitrary point an orthogonal basis is constructed and the center of the family of similar ellipsoids is found in this basis by a sequence of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LINEAR EQUATIONS, NONLINEAR EQUATIONS, CONJUGATES, RADII,...

Several iterative algorithms based on multigrid methods are introduced for solving linear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. Automatic programs based on these algorithms are introduced using Simpson's rule and the piecewise Gaussian rule for numerical integration.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BANACH SPACE, FREDHOLM EQUATIONS, INTEGRAL EQUATIONS, LINEAR...

The existence of a solution defined for all t and possessing a type of boundedness property is established for the perturbed nonlinear system y = f(t,y) + F(t,y). The unperturbed system x = f(t,x) has a dichotomy in which some solutions exist and are well behaved as t increases to infinity, and some solution exists and are well behaved as t decreases to minus infinity. A similar study is made for a perturbed nonlinear differential equation defined on a half line, R+, and the existence of a...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, PERTURBATION THEORY, INTEGRAL...

Theorems are developed to support bifurcation and stability of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations in the solution of the asymptotic behavior of functions with certain specified properties.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PARABOLIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL...

The problem of existence of periodic solutions for some nonautonomous neutral functional differential equations is examined. It is an application of a basic theorem on the Fredholm alternative for periodic solutions of some linear neutral equations and of a generalized Leray-Schauder theory. Although proofs are simple, the results are nontrivial extensions to the neutral case of existence theorems for periodic solutions of functional differential equations.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, PROBLEM SOLVING, FREDHOLM EQUATIONS,...

It is noted that certain common linear wave operators have the property that linear variation of the initial data gives rise to one-dimensional evolution in a plane defined by time and some direction in space. The analysis is given For operators arising in acoustics, electromagnetics, elastodynamics, and an abstract system.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CAUCHY-RIEMANN EQUATIONS, ELASTIC WAVES, ELASTODYNAMICS,...

The finite element methods (FEM) have proved to be a powerful technique for the solution of boundary value problems associated with partial differential equations of either elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic type. They also have a good potential for utilization on parallel computers particularly in relation to the concept of domain decomposition. This report is intended as an introduction to the FEM for the nonspecialist. It contains a survey which is totally nonexhaustive, and it also contains...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD, PARTIAL...

Modified divided differences (MDD) provide a good way of representing a polynomial passing through points with unequally spaced abcissas. Recurrence relations for computing coefficients in either the monomial or Chebyshev basis from the MDD coefficients, and for computing the MDD coefficients for either the differentiated or the integrated polynomial are given. The latter operation is likely to be useful if MDD are used in a method for solving stiff differential equations.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NUMERICAL ANALYSIS, POLYNOMIALS, DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS,...

Semidirect methods are discussed, their present role, as well as some developments for their application in computational fluid dynamics. A semidirect method is a computational scheme that uses a fast, direct, elliptic solver as the driving algorithm for the iterative solution of finite difference equations. Specific subtopics include: (1) direct Cauchy Riemann solvers for first order elliptic equations; (2) application of the semidirect method to the mixed elliptic hyperbolic problem of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATION, FLUID DYNAMICS, NONLINEAR EQUATIONS,...

The aeroacoustics of rigid boundaries is discussed. Lighthill gave a formulation of this problem in which he showed that the sources of the acoustic field were quadrupole in nature. We have preferred a different formulation of the problem, in which the quadrupoles are sources for a nonlinear wave equation, as opposed to the linear one used by Lighthill. This is given here in a figure which also gives further details of a solution procedure for the Euler equations appropriate for the aeroelastic...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACOUSTICS, AEROACOUSTICS, ALGORITHMS, COMPUTATION, NONLINEAR...

A mathematical formulation of the SCOLE control problem in terms of a continuous model described by partial differential equations with delta functions on the boundary is presented along with three techniques of solution. The abstract wave equation approach leads immediately to a linear feedback law that can ensure (strong) stability. The boundary control approach yields an explicit solution, albeit in a simple case.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONTROL THEORY, FEEDBACK CONTROL, FLEXIBLE SPACECRAFT,...

Discrete approximation schemes for the solution of nonlinear hereditary control problems are constructed. The methods involve approximation by a sequence of optimal control problems in which the original infinite dimensional state equation has been approximated by a finite dimensional discrete difference equation. Convergence of the state approximations is argued using linear semigroup theory and is then used to demonstrate that solutions to the approximating optimal control problems in some...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), APPROXIMATION, DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS, HEREDITY, NONLINEAR...

Elliptic and hyperbolic problems in unbounded regions are considered. These problems, when one wants to solve them numerically, have the difficulty of prescribing boundary conditions at infinity. Computationally, one needs a finite region in which to solve these problems. The corresponding conditions at infinity imposed on the finite distance boundaries should dictate the boundary condition at infinity and be accurate with respect to the interior numerical scheme. Such boundary conditions are...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARIES, BOUNDARY CONDITIONS, ELLIPTIC DIFFERENTIAL...

Future space vehicles will be relatively large and flexible, and active control will be necessary to maintain geometrical configuration. While the stresses and strains in these space vehicles are not expected to be excessively large, their cumulative effects will cause significant geometrical nonlinearities to appear in the equations of motion, in addition to the nonlinearities caused by material properties. Since the only effective tool for the analysis of such large complex structures is the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS, NONLINEAR EQUATIONS, NONLINEAR SYSTEMS,...

A third-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non{Oscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference scheme developed by Yamaleev and Carpenter [1] was proven to be stable in the energy norm for both continuous and discontinuous solutions of systems of linear hyperbolic equations. Herein, a systematic approach is presented that enables "energy stable" modifications for existing WENO schemes of any order. The technique is demonstrated by developing a one-parameter family of fifth-order...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FINITE DIFFERENCE THEORY, HYPERBOLIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS,...

A family of conditionally stable, forward Euler finite difference equations can be constructed for the simplest equation of Schroedinger type, namely u sub t - iu sub xx. Generalization of this result to physically realistic Schroedinger type equations is presented.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EULER EQUATIONS OF MOTION, FINITE DIFFERENCE THEORY,...

The equations of motion for a two-segment deploying telescopic beam are derived through application of Lagrange's equation. The outer tube of the beam is fixed at one end and the inner tube slides freely relative to the fixed segment. The resulting nonlinear, non-autonomous set of equations is linearized and simplified to the standard Euler-Bernoulli partial differential equations for an elastic beam by freezing the deployment process at various stages of deployment, and examining the small...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EQUATIONS OF MOTION, NONLINEAR EQUATIONS, PARTIAL...

Collocation schemes are presented for solving linear fourth order differential equations in one and two dimensions. The variational formulation of the model fourth order problem is discretized by approximating the integrals by a Gaussian quadrature rule generalized to include the values of the derivative of the integrand at the boundary points. Collocation schemes are derived which are equivalent to this discrete variational problem. An efficient preconditioner based on a low-order finite...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COLLOCATION, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, LINEAR EQUATIONS,...

Some important advances took place during the last several years in the development of genuinely multidimensional upwind schemes for the compressible Euler equations. In particular, a robust, high-resolution genuinely multidimensional scheme which can be used for any of the flow regimes computations was constructed. This paper summarizes briefly these developments and outlines the fundamental advantages of this approach.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EULER EQUATIONS OF MOTION, INVISCID FLOW, MULTIBLOCK GRIDS,...

When constructing an algorithm for the numerical integration of a differential equation, one must first convert the known ordinary differential equation (ODE), which is defined at a point, into an ordinary difference equation (O(delta)E), which is defined over an interval. Asymptotic, generalized, midpoint, and trapezoidal, O(delta)E algorithms are derived for a nonlinear first order ODE written in the form of a linear ODE. The asymptotic forward (typically underdamped) and backward (typically...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, ASYMPTOTIC METHODS, DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS,...

The size of the shock-layer governed by a conservation law is studied. The conservation law is a parabolic reaction-convection-diffusion equation with a small parameter multiplying the diffusion term and convex flux. Rigorous upper and lower bounding functions for the solution of the conservation law are established based on maximum-principle arguments. The bounding functions demonstrate that the size of the shock-layer is proportional to the parameter multiplying the diffusion term.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONSERVATION LAWS, HYPERBOLIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS,...

The numerical solution of stiff initial value problems, which lead to the problem of solving large systems of mildly nonlinear equations are considered. For many problems derived from engineering and science, a solution is possible only with methods derived from iterative linear equation solvers. A common approach to solving the nonlinear equations is to employ an approximate solution obtained from an explicit method. The error is examined to determine how it is distributed among the stiff and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS, CHEBYSHEV APPROXIMATION,...

Primer vector theory is used in analyzing a set of linear, relative-motion equations - the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations - to determine the criteria and necessary conditions for an optimal, N-impulse trajectory. Since the state vector for these equations is defined in terms of a linear system of ordinary differential equations, all fundamental relations defining the solution of the state and costate equations, and the necessary conditions for optimality, can be expressed in terms of elementary...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EQUATIONS OF MOTION, LINEAR EQUATIONS, SPACECRAFT...

A multiphase selfadaptive predictor corrector type algorithm was developed. This algorithm enables the solution of highly nonlinear structural responses including kinematic, kinetic and material effects as well as pro/post buckling behavior. The strategy involves three main phases: (1) the use of a warpable hyperelliptic constraint surface which serves to upperbound dependent iterate excursions during successive incremental Newton Ramphson (INR) type iterations; (20 uses an energy constraint to...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, BUCKLING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, KINETIC EQUATIONS,...

In the linearization of systems of non-linear differential equations, those systems which can be exactly transformed into the second order linear differential equation Y"-AY'-BY=0 where Y, Y', and Y" are n x 1 vectors and A and B are constant n x n matrices of real numbers were considered. The 2n x 2n matrix was used to transform the above matrix equation into the first order matrix equation X' = MX. Specially the matrix M and the conditions which will diagonalize or triangularize M...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, LINEARIZATION, MATRICES...

A class was devised of fast wavelet based algorithms for linear evolution equations whose coefficients are time independent. The method draws on the work of Beylkin, Coifman, and Rokhlin which they applied to general Calderon-Zygmund type integral operators. A modification of their idea is applied to linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations, with spatially varying coefficients. A significant speedup over standard methods is obtained when applied to hyperbolic equations in one space dimension...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, HYPERBOLIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, LINEAR...

The Navier-Stokes equations can be viewed as an incompletely elliptic perturbation of the Euler equations. By using the entropy function for the Euler equations as a measure of energy for the Navier-Stokes equations, it was possible to obtain nonlinear energy estimates for the mixed initial boundary value problem. These estimates are used to derive boundary conditions which guarantee L2 boundedness even when the Reynolds number tends to infinity. Finally, a new difference scheme for modelling...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY CONDITIONS, BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS, EULER EQUATIONS...

Two schemes of closing turbulent moment equations are proposed both of which make double correlation equations separated into single-point equations. The first is based on neglected triple correlation, leading to an equation differing from small perturbed gasdynamic equations where the separation constant appears as the frequency. Grid-produced turbulence is described in this light as time-independent, cylindrically-isotropic turbulence. Application to wall turbulence guided by a new asymptotic...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANALYSIS (MATHEMATICS), KINETIC EQUATIONS, KINETIC THEORY,...

A sline-based approximation scheme is discussed for optimal control problems governed by nonlinear nonautonomous delay differential equations. The approximating framework reduces the original control problem to a sequence of optimization problems governed by ordinary differential equations. Convergence proofs, which appeal directly to dissipative-type estimates for the underlying nonlinear operator, are given and numerical findings are summarized.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), APPROXIMATION, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, HEREDITY, NONLINEAR...

Numerical techniques for solving parabolic equations by the method of lines is addressed. The main motivation for the proposed approach is the possibility of exploiting a high degree of parallelism in a simple manner. The basic idea of the method is to approximate the action of the evolution operator on a given state vector by means of a projection process onto a Krylov subspace. Thus, the resulting approximation consists of applying an evolution operator of a very small dimension to a known...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), APPROXIMATION, MATRIX METHODS, NONLINEAR EQUATIONS, NUMERICAL...

A computational scheme and a standard program is proposed for solving systems of nonstationary spatially one-dimensional nonlinear differential equations using Newton's method. The proposed scheme is universal in its applicability and its reduces to a minimum the work of programming. The program is written in the FORTRAN language and can be used without change on electronic computers of type YeS and BESM-6. The standard program described permits the identification of nonstationary (or...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, NONLINEAR EQUATIONS, NUMERICAL...

A method is developed for using the integrals of systems of nonlinear, ordinary differential equations in a numerical integration process to control the local errors in these integrals and reduce the global errors of the solution. The method is general and can be applied to either scaler or vector integrals. A number of example problems, with accompanying numerical results, are used to verify the analysis and support the conjecture of global error reduction.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, INTEGRAL EQUATIONS, NUMERICAL...

System theorists understand that the same mathematical objects which determine controllability for nonlinear control systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) also determine hypoellipticity for linear partial differentail equations (PDEs). Moreover, almost any study of ODE systems begins with linear systems. It is remarkable that Hormander's paper on hypoellipticity of second order linear p.d.e.'s starts with equations due to Kolmogorov, which are shown to be analogous to the linear...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPARISON, CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS,...

A family of five-stage fourth-order Runge-Kutta schemes is derived; these schemes required only two storage locations. A particular scheme is identified that has desirable efficiency characteristics for hyperbolic and parabolic initial (boundary) value problems. This scheme is competitive with the classical fourth-order method (high-storage) and is considerably more efficient and accurate than existing third-order low-storage schemes.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

A slowly convergent stationary iterative process can be accelerated by explicitly annihilating (i.e., eliminating) the dominant eigenvector component of the error. The dominant eigenvalue or complex pair of eigenvalues can be estimated from the solution during the iteration. The corresponding eigenvector or complex pair of eigenvectors can then be annihilated by applying an explicit Richardson process over the basic iterative method. This can be done entirely in real arithmetic by analytically...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, EIGENVECTORS, FLOW...

The linear quadratic optimal control problem on infinite time interval for linear time-invariant systems defined on Hilbert spaces is considered. The optimal control is given by a feedback form in terms of solution pi to the associated algebraic Riccati equation (ARE). A Ritz type approximation is used to obtain a sequence pi sup N of finite dimensional approximations of the solution to ARE. A sufficient condition that shows pi sup N converges strongly to pi is obtained. Under this condition, a...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGEBRA, APPROXIMATION, CONVERGENCE, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS,...

The guiding center motion of particles in a nearly drift free magnetic field is analyzed in order to investigate the dependence of mean drift velocity on equatorial pitch angle, the variation of local drift velocity along the trajectory, and other properties. The mean drift for adiabatic particles is expressed by means of elliptic integrals. Approximations to the twice-averaged Hamiltonian W near z = O are derived, permitting simple representation of drift paths if an electric potential also...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ADIABATIC EQUATIONS, GEOMAGNETIC TAIL, MAGNETIC FIELDS,...

We present an upwind high-resolution factorizable (UHF) discrete scheme for the compressible Euler equations that allows to distinguish between full-potential and advection factors at the discrete level. The scheme approximates equations in their general conservative form and is related to the family of genuinely multidimensional upwind schemes developed previously and demonstrated to have good shock-capturing capabilities. A unique property of this scheme is that in addition to the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EULER EQUATIONS OF MOTION, UPWIND SCHEMES (MATHEMATICS), FLOW...

Singularities in inviscid two-dimensional finite-amplitude water waves and inviscid Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed. For the deep water gravity waves of permanent form, through a combination of analytical and numerical methods, results describing the precise form, number, and location of singularities in the unphysical domain as the wave height is increased are presented. It is shown how the information on the singularity in the unphysical region has the same form as for deep water...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEEP WATER, GRAVITY WAVES, INVISCID FLOW, SINGULARITY...

The properties of an implicit time-split algorithm, which utilizes locally one dimensional spatial steps, are examined using the two-dimensional heat conduction equation as the test problem. Both temporal and spatial inconsistencies inherent in the scheme are identified. A consistent, implicit splitting approach is developed. The relationship between this method and other time-split implicit schemes is explained, and stability problems encountered with the method in three dimensions are...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, CONSISTENCY, FINITE DIFFERENCE THEORY, FLOW...

The Compressible Flow Toolbox is primarily a MATLAB-language implementation of a set of algorithms that solve approximately 280 linear and nonlinear classical equations for compressible flow. The toolbox is useful for analysis of one-dimensional steady flow with either constant entropy, friction, heat transfer, or Mach number greater than 1. The toolbox also contains algorithms for comparing and validating the equation-solving algorithms against solutions previously published in open...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, COMPRESSIBLE FLOW, FLOW EQUATIONS, LINEAR...

One-dimensional water-hammer modeling involves the solution of two coupled non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). These equations result from applying the principles of conservation of mass and momentum to flow through a pipe, and usually the assumption that the speed at which pressure waves propagate through the pipe is constant. In order to solve these equations for the interested quantities (i.e. pressures and flow rates), they must first be converted to a system of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WATER HAMMER, INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW, WATER FLOW, METHOD OF...

An asymptotic theory is presented for the determination of velocity and linear stability of a steady symmetric bubble in a Hele-Shaw cell for small surface tension. In the first part, the bubble velocity U relative to the fluid velocity at infinity is determined for small surface tension T by determining transcendentally small correction to the asymptotic series solution. It is found that for any relative bubble velocity U in the interval (U(c),2), solutions exist at a countably infinite set of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ASYMPTOTIC SERIES, BUBBLES, CHANNEL FLOW, FLOW VELOCITY,...

By generalizing the Liapunov-Yoshizawa techniques, necessary and sufficient conditions are given for uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness of a rather general class of nonlinear differential equations of neutral type. Among the applications treated by the methods are the Lienard equation of neutral type and hereditary systems of Lurie type. The absolute stability of this later equation is also investigated. A certain existence result of a solution of a neutral functional...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS, CONTROLLABILITY, FUNCTION SPACE,...

The duality approach, which is motivated by computational needs and is done by introducing N + 1 Language multipliers is addressed. For N-person linear quadratic games, the primal min-max problem is shown to be equivalent to the dual min-max problem.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, DUALITY PRINCIPLE, FINITE ELEMENT...

In connection with approximations for nonlinear evolution equations, it is standard to assume that nonlinear terms are at least locally Lipschitz continuous. However, it is shown here that f = f(X,del sub u(X)) is Lipschitz continuous from the subspace W sup 1, infinity is a subset of L sub 2 into W sup 1,2, and maps W sup 2, infinity into W sup 1, infinity, if and only if f is affine with W sup 1, infinity coefficients. In fact, a local version of this claim is proved.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LIPSCHITZ CONDITION, NONLINEAR EQUATIONS, OPERATORS...

The advantages inherent in the boundary element method (BEM) for potential flows are exploited to solve viscous flow problems. The trick is the introduction of a so-called dual reciprocal technique in which the convective terms are represented by a global function whose unknown coefficients are determined by collocation. The approach, which is necessarily iterative, converts the governing partial differential equations into integral equations via the distribution of fictitious sources or...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD, CONVECTION, CONVECTIVE FLOW, FLOW...

A paper presents a theoretical investigation of subsonic and supersonic effects in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The BEC is represented by a time-dependent, nonlinear Schroedinger equation that includes terms for an external confining potential term and a weak interatomic repulsive potential proportional to the number density of atoms. From this model are derived Madelung equations, which relate the quantum phase with the number density, and which are used to represent excitations...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUBSONIC SPEED, BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES, FLOW EQUATIONS,...